Statement of Changes in Shareholders Equity

A statement of changes in shareholders equity is a financial statement that presents a summary of the changes in shareholders’ equity accounts over the reporting period. It reconciles the opening balances of equity accounts with their closing balances.

There are two types of changes in shareholders’ equity: (a) changes that originate from transactions with shareholders such as issue of new shares, payment of dividends, etc. and (b) changes that result from changes in total comprehensive income, such as net income for the period, revaluation of fixed assets, changes in fair value of available for sale investments, etc.

Components

Typically, a statement of shareholders equity summaries changes in the following equity components:

Following are the most common changes in shareholders’ equity:

Format: Example

Alumina, Inc. is a company engaged in extraction of Aluminum. The company’s CFO has asked you to prepare a statement of changes in equity for the company for the year ended 30 June 2014.

Following information is available:

Solution

Statement of shareholders equity is normally prepared in vertical format, i.e. the equity components appear as column headings and changes during the year appear as row headings.

Following is the statement of shareholders equity for Alumina, Inc. for financial year ended 30 June 2014. Each change is explained in the notes below:

Alumina, Inc.
Statement of Shareholders Equity
for the year ended 30 June 2014
NoteCommon stockAdditional
paid-in
capital
Capital reserveTreasury stockRetained earningsRevaluation surplusTotal
USD in million
Balance as at 1-Jul-135012030-9015305
Issue of bonus sharesA515--(20)--
Issue of new sharesB1035----45
Net incomeC----50-50
Transfer to capital reserveD--5-(5)--
DividendsE----(16)--16
Share buybackF---(2)--(2)
Reversal of revaluationG-----(5)(5)
Balance as at 30-Jun-146517035(2)9910377

Notes:

  1. Issue of bonus share results in increase in the common stock and additional paid-in capital and decrease the retained earnings. Following journal entry is behind this adjustment:
    Retained earnings (5,000,000 × 0.1 × $40)$20 million
    Common stock (5,000,000 × 0.1 × $10)$5 million
    Additional paid-in capital (20 - 5)$15 million
  2. When new shares are issued, credit to common stock equals the product of number of shares issued and the stated price of the share. The excess of cash received over the credit to common stock account goes to additional paid-in capital. Following is the relevant journal entry:
    Cash (1,000,000 × $45)$45 million
    Common stock (1,000,000 × $10)$10 million
    Additional paid-in capital (45 - 10)$35 million
  3. Net income increases retained earnings.
  4. Since 10% of profit of the year is transferred to the capital reserve according to the relevant laws, following journal entry is behind the adjustment:
    Retained earnings ($50 × 0.1)$5 million
    Capital reserve$5 million
  5. Cash dividends decrease the retained earnings.
  6. Shares repurchased are accounted for by debiting the treasury stock account, which is a contra-account to the shareholders’ equity. Following is the journal entry behind the adjustment:
    Treasury stock (500,000 × 40)$2 million
    Cash$2 million
  7. This adjustment is only required under IFRS. If a fixed asset is revalued upwards, it increased the asset book value and also increases revaluation surplus, which is a shareholders’ equity component. When the same asset is subsequently revalued down, the downward revaluation is written off to the extent of any upward revaluation originally credit to revaluation surplus in relation to that asset. In this particular case, the asset was revaluated up in earlier year such that a credit of $7 million was made to revaluation surplus. Now, a downgrade revaluation by $5 million can be written off completely against revaluation surplus and hence this decrease in revaluation surplus.

Written by Obaidullah Jan